SCP and Vapor Retarders

SCP Tech Brief: SCP Products and Vapor Retarders/Barriers

ACI 302R-15 Guide to Floor and Slab Construction¹ discusses vapor retarders/barriers at length. Vapor retarders/barriers are meant to minimize the transmission of water vapor through a concrete slab from sources located beneath the slab but have no effect on water vapor that comes from the concrete itself. There is no industry-recognized dividing line between what constitutes a vapor retarder and a vapor barrier, but both must not exceed 0.1 perms according to ASTM E1745.

Location of the vapor barrier has been a topic of debate within the concrete construction community. Placing the vapor barrier within direct contact of the bottom of the slab has been proven to cause problems with curling and shrinkage ². An alternative recommended practice is to place a layer of sand between the vapor barrier and the bottom of the slab to offset those associated problems. This layer of sand can provide access to moisture from the outside to the bottom of the slab and cause problems with water vapor transmission. ACI 302R-15 provides guidance in the form of a flow chart summarized in Figure 1.

When used at time of placement, Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products reduce water vapor transmission to the point where the performance of moisture-sensitive flooring, adhesives, and coatings are not affected after fourteen (14) days post-treatment.

Because vapor barriers are sometimes required by code or for other reasons other than water vapor, SCP does not state that we replace vapor barriers outright. An effective plan to address moisture transmission through cracks and joints should always be part of the design of any slab that is moisture-sensitive. When a plan is in place and executed to prevent moisture transmission through cracks and joints, SCP treatments are effective whether or not a vapor barrier is present.

Figure 1: Summary of Flow Chart from ACI 302.1R-15 to Determine Vapor Barrier Use and Location in Slab Section

SCP products have been used successfully in hundreds of projects where vapour barriers were not used, providing water vapor protection to flooring, adhesives, and coatings. SCP recommends that project design teams consider their local codes and intended performance of the proposed vapor barrier before deciding to replace the vapor barrier with SCP technology.


¹ American Concrete Institute (ACI) ACI 302R-15 “Guide to Floor and Slab Construction” ACI Manual of Concrete

Practice. Farmington Hills, MI, USA.

² National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA), n.d. “CIP 29 – Vapor Retarders Under Slabs on Grade”

NRMCA Concrete in Practice Series, Retrieved 8/17/18 from:

SCP Compared to Silicate Salts Used as Admixtures

Silicate Salt Admixture Behavior in Concrete – What Does It Do? 

The silicate salt admixtures, generally comprised of sodium, potassium, or lithium silicates work by the formation of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) as the mechanism of closing void structure to decrease permeability of concrete. While a track record of permeability reduction may have been established, permeability reducing admixtures still have the problem of capillary and bleed water channel formation that is only partially addressed. No known technologies completely remove capillary and bleed water channel void structure when used as an admixture.

The silicate admixtures introduce silica chemically bonded to a metal (typically sodium (Na), potassium (K) or lithium (Li)). Because the silica is chemically bonded already, the silicate salt requires a certain amount of energy to be spent from the concrete system to disassociate the cation (Na, K, or Li) from the silica. During this dissociation, other reactants are formed in addition to C-S-H including sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, both of which have been found to be detrimental to concrete.

SCP’s Colloidal Silica Behavior in Concrete

Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products contain colloidal silica – that is, a suspension of amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles that are sufficiently small enough not to be affected by gravity. SCP products are applied after initial set of the concrete – after capillary and bleed water channel formation. SCP products then enter the concrete, reacting with available alkalis. SCP product particles are chemically the same as silica fume, but many times smaller, which provides significantly more surface area to improve the pozzolanic reaction over that of even silica fume or metakaolin. The pozzolanic reaction is the conversion of calcium hydroxide to C-S-H. With SCP products, C-S-H fills the void structure of the concrete within the reaction zone, providing many benefits to concrete.

Comparison of SCP Products to Silicate Salt Admixtures

Because SCP products contain unbonded silicon dioxide particles that are very small, they are ready to combine chemically with calcium hydroxide with no dissociation energy required. The resulting reaction products are even longer-chain, more stable C-S-H than primarily formed by cement hydration.[i] This improved C-S-H structure leads to greater performance of SCP products than that of silicate admixtures, or other waterproofing admixtures. The following table represents SCP’s published test results compared to a leading silicate admixture brand’s published test results.

[i] Kontoleontos, F., Tsakirdis, P., Marinos, A., Kaloidas, V., & Katsioti, M. (2012). Influence of colloidal nanosilica on ultrafine cement hydration: physiochemical and microstructural characterization. Construction and Building Materials 35, 347-360.

Another important concern when evaluating silicate salt admixtures versus colloidal silica is the delivery system. Silicate salt admixtures are introduced into the mixer truck in powder form, usually by the concrete plant or construction personnel at the rate of 20-60 lbs. per cubic yard. On a 10-cubic yard load, this translates to 200 to 600 lbs. of material that must be handled manually and introduced into a turning drum. Safety concerns, from lifting to inhalation hazards, are associated with manual loading of any powder into a mixer truck. Conversely, SCP’s brand of colloidal silicas is spray-applied in liquid form on fresh or existing concrete, and contains zero VOCs.


Concrete permeability reducing admixtures may be effective in some cases, but bleed water channels and capillary structure are likely to still be present in all conventional concrete. SCP products have the advantage of closing capillaries and bleed water channels with reaction products after they have formed. Additionally, the use of SCP products remove the safety hazards associated with plant-dosing of concrete trucks with a powdered product.

SCP Tech Brief: Concrete Curing

ACI 308R-16 Guide to External Curing of Concrete refers to curing as “Curing is an action taken to maintain moisture and temperature conditions in a freshly placed cementitious mixture to allow hydraulic cement hydration and, if pozzolans are used, pozzolanic reactions to occur so that the potential properties of the mixture may develop.” Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products work by penetrating into the capillaries and voids left in concrete as bleed water exits.  Once in the concrete, SCP products react with available alkalis to form Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), the same reaction product provided by cement hydration that provides most of concrete’s desirable properties.  The reaction products formed fill capillaries and shut down liquid water transmission.  This action makes SCP products an effective waterproofing agent, even under hydrostatic pressure.  The action works in the other direction as well, holding in water that would normally evaporate at early ages.

By making the water that would normally evaporate at early ages available for continued hydration, SCP products meet ACI’s definition of curing.  Evidence of the continued hydration is drawn from the fact that SCP products improve concrete’s compressive strength and reduce drying shrinkage significantly, even when compared to moist-cured samples.

Because SCP products penetrate into the concrete, they do not form a surface membrane.  Therefore, the ASTM test methods and specifications (ASTM C309 and ASTM C1315, respectively) do not apply to SCP products.  An important consideration when evaluating products for use with concrete is that ASTM develops standards to generate performance numbers while ACI writes the guides and specifications that are used to put the numbers generated into practice.  At least two ASTM C09 subcommittees are currently working on standards to better evaluate the performance of colloidal silica.  Until those standards are available, and ACI 308.1 can be updated to reflect those standards, the ACI guidance in ACI 308R-16 on curing describing the desired effects must take precedence.

Figure 1: Compressive Strength as a Function of Age

for a Variety of Curing Conditions (ACI 308R-16)

According to ACI 308R-16, when determining the duration of curing, consideration should be given to the concrete properties that are desired in addition to compressive strength development.  “For example, if both high compressive strength and low permeability are required concrete performance characteristics, then the curing needs to be long enough to develop both properties to the specified values.  The appropriate duration of curing will depend on the property that is the slowest to develop.”  By providing a permanent barrier to water migration, SCP products maintain curing indefinitely.  In other words, the semi-evaporable and non-evaporable water continues to be made available for hydration until it is consumed or an equilibrium state is achieved when SCP products are used.  While membranes degrade over time, and water ponding methods cannot be continued indefinitely, the use of SCP products provides a continuous curing environment.  Figure 1 above shows the percentage of strength gain associated with various curing methods.  SCP products will allow concrete to generally follow the “moist-cured entire time” trendline with values that are typically 7-16% higher.

Figure 2: SCP Product Performance Versus Air and Water Cured Concrete

Figure 2 shows the performance of concrete treated with SCP products versus air and moist cured concrete.   Compressive strength development is the primary reason curing of concrete is required, and SCP products help achieve even better performance that moist-cured concrete, long held as the gold standard of curing concrete.  Figure 3 below shows the performance of treated concrete tested for drying shrinkage, another important reason curing is required, demonstrating improvements over moist-cured control samples.  Figure 4 shows the performance of treated concrete in water permeability testing in a hydrostatic pressure environment, another reason curing is often called out.

Figure 3: SCP-Treated Drying Shrinkage Performance (ASTM C157)

Figure 4: SCP-Treated Concrete Performance Under Hydrostatic Pressure

Concluding Remarks

ASTM C309 membrane-forming curing compounds were developed as a solution to the need for a time-saving alternative to water ponding.  They are widely recognized as providing “adequate” curing, but are not seen as equal to water ponding or water-saturated coverings.  Additionally, SCP products become a permanent part of the concrete while membranes and water ponding are temporary.  The objective of curing is to allow the concrete to meet performance parameters; SCP products produce those performance parameters at a rate equal to or better than moist curing.

Specification Guidance for Designers

ACI 308.1-11 Specification for Curing Concrete section 1.1.2 Exclusions allows designers to stipulate special curing procedures not covered by the specification.  Instead, refer to SCP’s example specifications for its products and incorporate them as needed.

SCP and Structural Integrity


Structural integrity is defined by Dr. Steve Roberts of Oxford University as “the science and technology of the margin between safety and disaster.” When taken in context of the broader idea that structural integrity refers to the ability of a structure to resist loads or other damaging effects from its environment, Dr. Robert’s definition is of particular interest because it concentrates on the idea of safety factor.


Concrete is the most widely used building material globally, and many count on its contribution to the structural integrity of our built environment. Design professionals rely upon concrete to perform as anticipated to provide confidence that the factors of safety in the structural designs are reliable. In addition, concrete performance is essential in the longevity for the structures for the intended function. The primary consideration of concrete in a structural system is its capacity to function under designed load conditions.  However, there are many other contributors to the life of a structure other than the load that can impact a concrete structure’s ability to endure.  To fully rely on concrete’s structural integrity, its ability to resist the effects of outside influences other than load – defined as durability – must also be considered in addition to concrete performance.


Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products contribute to concrete durability by restricting access to the concrete from the outside influences mentioned above.  SCP products close capillary bleedwater channels and pore spaces with reaction products that are more stable forms of the naturally occurring reaction products already in concrete; SCP products effectively fill the voids in concrete with more concrete.  The effects on concrete durability enabled by this simple action are numerous, including improvements to chloride penetration resistance, abrasion resistance, sulfate attack resistance, water permeability, and others.  Additionally, SCP products reduce the drying shrinkage of concrete when used at time of placement.


As stated, load considerations are often of greatest concern.  SCP products improve compressive strength, allowing designers additional confidence that the concrete used in their designs will perform properly.  Structural integrity is a subject to be taken seriously.  With SCP, the overall structural integrity and durability of concrete structures can be improved.

Using Coatings and Stains on SCP-Treated Concrete

Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products fill capillary voids by reacting with calcium hydroxide found in concrete to form Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H).  By filling voids, SCP products stop liquid water transport and reduce water vapor transmission.  This void-filling action is important to consider when concrete will be receiving coatings or stains.


SCP Products and Concrete Coatings

Most coatings that are placed on concrete (epoxies, cementitious, urethanes, acrylics, and polyureas) depend on mechanical bond to perform well.  Because SCP products penetrate the substrate concrete’s capillary void space, the mechanical key present at the concrete/coating interface is undamaged and in some cases improved.  Once coatings are bonded to concrete, contractors and owners depend on the longevity of that bond to dictate the life cycle of the coating.  Two common mechanisms that affect the coating’s life cycle are water vapor transmission and liquid water movement, both of which can deteriorate the bond between coatings and substrate concrete [1].


By stopping liquid water movement and significantly reducing water vapor transmission, SCP products can significantly improve the performance and life expectancy of coatings.  Several coating manufacturers have specified SCP products in the past to act as a moisture barrier to ensure proper performance of their coatings.  Independent laboratory testing has demonstrated SCP products’ performance improvements on coatings, as well as years of successful projects.


Laboratory Testing of Bond of Coatings with SCP-Treated Concrete

Nine test panels of poor concrete with expected high-water vapor transmission (WVT) were cast and tested to ASTM E-96-10 (water method). Two additional sets of nine panels were cast with the same mix design and then treated with SCP products before also being tested to ASTM E-96-10. Results of that testing are show in Table 1 and Figure 2 below.

Twenty-seven more test panels were cast with the same mix design with two sets of nine panels treated with SCP products. These were then affixed with a cementitious coating and tested to ASTM C-1583 (pull-off method). Results of this testing are shown in Table 2 and Figure 3 below.

The testing information presented above demonstrates that SCP Treatments may improve the bond strength of coatings. Additionally, SCP products can help extend the life of most coatings by restricting water vapor and liquid water transmission.


SCP Products and Stained Concrete

Because SCP products fill capillary voids, water-based concrete stains are generally not recommended for use on treated concrete.  Acid-based stains and solvent-based stains may demonstrate some limited effectiveness. SCP products have not been tested with all stain types and manufacturers, so SCP recommends testing the performance of proposed stains with mock-ups before proceeding with a project.  Figures 4 and 5 show some typical differences in untreated versus treated concrete that have been subjected to surface stains.


Other Coatings and Systems and SCP Products

In general, SCP products function as expected given that a Portland cement concrete has been placed and no conditions that inhibit the penetration of the SCP products exist.  SCP products, when applied properly, will have no detrimental effects on the bonding of coatings that do not require penetration into the capillary void structure of concrete. They penetrate beyond the surface of the concrete, so properly applied SCP products leave no bond-breaking residue on the surface of the concrete to interfere with coatings.



By limiting liquid water and water vapor transmission, SCP Technologies can extend the life cycle of most coatings in most situations.  However, because SCP Treatments fill capillary voids, the effectiveness of stains should be subjected to trial placements before proceeding.


[1] Lawrence, B. Lee (2004) “Concrete Floor Covering Failures” Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. Retrieved 10/17/17 from:

Sustainability in Construction: Going Beyond Using Recycled Materials

Sustainability is a buzzword in construction, manufacturing, and every other industry today. Fundamentally, sustainability is the idea of managing our resources so that future generations have access to those resources. Naturally, this idea brings with it the desire to utilize recycled and renewable materials. Yet in construction, sustainability can also be addressed through dramatically increasing the expected life cycle of the built environment. By designing our structures to last two to three times longer than our current designs, we can alleviate the need to rebuild those structures as often.

Concrete is a relatively versatile and durable material.  Globally, concrete is used over twice as much every year than all other building materials combined.  Unfortunately, concrete structures are being rebuilt or repaired far too often.  All concrete is permeable to some degree, allowing water, gases, and deleterious substances, such as chlorides, into structures where life-shortening damage occurs. The durability of most concrete has a direct relationship with its permeability; as permeability goes up, durability goes down.

Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) helps improve the durability of concrete with a colloidal silica product that enters the concrete through capillary voids.  Once inside, the colloidal silica reacts with calcium hydroxide to form more Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), essentially filling the capillary and pore structure with more concrete.  This action dramatically reduces permeability for the lifetime of the concrete.  Using life cycle modeling software, laboratory-derived permeability parameters can be set to reflect the improvements to permeability gained with SCP products, and comparisons can be made between untreated concrete and concrete that has been treated with SCP Technology.  These comparisons can estimate a percentage in life cycle expectancy gained with the use of SCP products.

Often, concrete life expectancy can be increased two or three times with the use of SCP products.  For example, a bridge in a marine environment may be expected to last 30 years.  After treatment with SCP Technology, the permeability of the concrete can be reduced to elevate the life expectancy to 60-90 years or more.

Sustainability means more than just using recycled materials.  If we can provide the tools to make the concrete built environment last longer, then we can reduce overall raw material usage.  If life cycle of the structures you design and/or build is important, contact us to learn more about how SCP can help.  SCP’s technical staff can work with you to help get the most out of your concrete structures.

Reducing Reinforcing Steel Corrosion with SCP

Since the late-1800’s, the use of reinforced concrete has been the most widely used construction practice globally because reinforcement helps concrete in tension. However, one concern of using this practice is the durability and longevity of the concrete due to the corrosion potential of the reinforcement. Corrosion of reinforcing steel is the number one cause of failure in reinforced concrete structures.

Corrosion as defined by American Concrete Institute (ACI) is the deterioration of a material, usually a metal, that results from a chemical reaction with its environment.1 The corrosion of reinforcing steel is an electrochemical reaction consisting of the flow of electrons and ions that produces a deterioration of the steel and its properties. One significant way to reduce the corrosion potential is to completely encapsulate reinforcing steel in concrete with a high pH value, as the high alkaline environment acts as a protective oxide film. If no other outside forces are applied to the reinforced concrete, the steel should not rust. Unfortunately, almost all reinforced concrete is exposed to environmental conditions that shorten its lifespan, increasing the potential for the corrosion.

The corrosion potential of reinforcing steel is influenced by several factors: moisture intrusion, lowered pH values over time, quality of the concrete and construction materials, proper concrete coverage of reinforcing steel, initial curing conditions and the formation of cracks in the concrete. These factors can speed up chloride movement into the concrete, disrupting the protective oxide film around the reinforcing steel and leading to rusting. This corrosion can lead to spalling and delamination of the concrete structure and reduced tensile capacity.

Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) provides treatments that penetrate the pores and bleed-water capillaries in concrete. SCP products bring the pH of older concrete to a higher value and stabilize the pH of new concrete to maintain a high value, lowering the potential of reinforcing steel corrosion. Additionally, the colloidal silica in SCP Technology reacts with the available alkalis in the capillary and pore space to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). By filling these spaces, SCP products waterproof concrete within the interaction zone. If the concrete structure does not have any structural cracks, SCP products also waterproof the structure in the application area. With SCP Treatments stabilizing pH levels and preventing moisture migration from carrying chlorides within the concrete matrix, the corrosion potential is greatly reduced.

1 ACI CT-16 ACI Concrete Terminology ERRATA January 6, 2017


Is Spray-Lock Concrete Protection a Bond Breaker?

“Are Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) products bond breakers?” To answer this question, we need to define a bond breaker and examine how SCP reacts in the concrete matrix. A bond breaker is a product that forms varying layers of separation between contact surfaces. SCP is a penetrating concrete treatment that does not change the surface of the concrete matrix. An SCP application is not a coating and has no negative effect on bond integrity.

Testing of SCP’s application on concrete was performed to show that the product is not a bond breaker. Test methods included (1) ASTM C1583 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength of Concrete Surfaces and the Bond Strength or Tensile Strength of Concrete Repair and Overlay Materials by Direct Tension (Pull-off Method) and (2) ASTM E303 Standard Test Method for Measuring Surface Frictional Properties Using the British Pendulum Tester.

In the ASTM C1583 test method, the concrete sample is cleaned of surface contaminants and loose or deteriorated concrete. The sample is then prepared to the typical surface conditions of the in-place concrete structure. The test material is applied and cured in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. After cure, a core drill is used to make a circular cut perpendicular to the surface. The test material is left intact on the concrete substrate, while a steel disk is attached to the top of the material using an epoxy adhesive. A tensile loading device is then attached to the steel disk to apply a tensile load to the test sample with force parallel to the vertical axis of the specimen. The load is applied until failure, and results are recorded.

In the ASTM E303, the concrete surface is cleaned and freed of loose particles. The instrument is placed and leveled. The pendulum is lowered so that the edge of the slider just touches the concrete surface. Water is applied to thoroughly cover the test area. One swing is performed, and the reading is not recorded. Four more swings are made, and the surface is rewet before each swing. The results are recorded.

Testing shows that SCP Treatments increased the pull-off strength of concrete up to 73% compared to untreated concrete and had no statistical effect on surface friction. Since SCP Treatments become an integral part of the concrete matrix and are not surface coatings, there is no need for a mechanical key, additional treatments or removal prior to using a covering or coating. SCP can be used in conjunction with all types of coverings and adhesives without a negative impact on a covering material or adhesion of material to the concrete.

Calcium Hydroxide Consumption by SCP’s Colloidal Silica

Concrete in service can sometimes be exposed to attack from chemical agents. Two principal factors affect concrete’s durability in chemical attack situations: 1) the concrete’s permeability and 2) readily available reactants in the concrete. When Portland cement reacts chemically with water, it produces several reaction products.  Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) is the primary reaction product of hydration, contributing the most to strength and other desired properties of concrete.  An additional reaction product is Calcium Hydroxide (CH), which has little or no cementitious properties and contributes very little to the strength of hardened concrete.  CH is often described as a weak link in concrete as it is easily attacked by chemical agents and easily leached by water.  Pozzolans containing silica, however, can potentially react with CH to form secondary C-S-H, increasing concrete’s strength and reducing permeability1.


Colloidal silica treatments from Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) enter concrete through capillary voids, reacting with CH to form more C-S-H. Because of the colloidal silica’s extremely small particle size, it has a tremendous amount of pozzolanic potential, greater even than silica fume2.  During the reaction, SCP Treatments consume the readily-available CH, denying CH the opportunity to react with chemical agents that commonly attack concrete such as nitrates and sulfates.


Research has demonstrated that CH is consumed by colloidal silica, illustrated in Figures 1-2 below3.

Figure 1: Calcium Hydroxide Consumption by Colloidal Silica (CS), 1st 24-hours.


Figure 2: Calcium Hydroxide Consumption by Colloidal Silica (CS), 1st 56 Days

A logical concern among concrete technologists may be that the colloidal silica could exhaust the supply of CH for reaction with other pozzolans present in the concrete.  Research has shown that this is not the case, with pozzolan contents as high as 80% by weight of cementitious properties, demonstrating improved performance with colloidal silica additions.  As with most concrete technologies, SCP recommends testing of its products with project-specified concrete mixtures and constituent blends to establish the product’s performance with local raw materials.


[1] Kosmatka, S.H. & Wilson, M.L. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, EB001, 15th edition, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, USA, 2011, pp. 72-73.

[2] Singh, L.P., Karade, S.R., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Yousuf, M.M., & Ahalawat, S. “Beneficial role of nanosilica in cement based materials – a review,” Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013), 1069-1077.

[3] Hou, P., Kawashima, S., Kong, D., Corr, D., Qian, J., & Shah, S. “Modification effects of colloidal SiO2 on cement hydration and its gel property,” Composites Part B 45 (2013) 440-448.

Polished Concrete with Spray-Lock Concrete Protection Products

The Concrete Polishing Council defines polished concrete as the result of “changing a concrete floor surface, with or without aggregate exposure, to achieve a specified level of gloss.”1 Concrete polishing is a process where the upper paste portion of the concrete surface is removed. Based on the desired appearance, polishing can expose fine and/or coarse aggregates in the concrete. During the process, a densifying liquid is used to harden the concrete by filling capillaries and pores at the surface.

How does Spray-Lock Concrete Protection (SCP) work with concrete that will have a polished finish? SCP Treatments penetrate concrete through the concrete capillary system and react with free alkali to fill the capillaries and connected pore structure. The reaction creates more Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) that fills the pores and capillaries with more concrete and densifies the slab. Polishing on SCP-treated concrete may lead to a lighter appearance and may be harder to grind. Typically, the time frame for grinding SCP-treated concrete is comparable to high performance concrete. There have been many SCP-treated slabs that have been ground and polished without the use of an additional densifier with excellent results. However, the contractor can still use a densifier if the project specifications call for one to be used during the polishing process. Using a densifier will not interfere with performance of SCP products. SCP recommends performing a test area for polishing to see the final result prior to polishing an entire floor section. A topical sealer may also be used to help reduce staining of concrete.

At time of placement, spray-applied SCP Treatments can benefit polished concrete in the following ways:

  • Reduce the drying shrinkage of the concrete slab
  • Densify concrete within the interaction zone
  • Provide a superior cure
  • Increase durability
  • Reduce concrete maintenance
  • Allow floors to be polished within 14 days of concrete placement.